HashSet in java

In this post we are going to learn hashset in java.

HashSet in java

  • underlying data structure for hashset is HashTable.
  • HashSet implements Set interface.
  • Hashset do not allow duplicate elements. If any duplicate object is added, then add() method returns false without adding any duplicate object.
  • Object are inserted based on hash code.
  • Hashset insertion order is not preserved.
  • In hashset all objects will be inserted based on hashcode.
  • In hashset heterogeneous elements are allowed.
  • Hashset allow null value.
  • Hashset implements Serializable and Cloneable interface.
  • In hashset searching objects is easier. Because objects are stored based on hashcode.

Initial capacity : is initial number of buckets that a Hashset object can hold.

Also read – treeset in java

Load factor : is a measure to calculate till what load HashSet can allow elements to insert before size is increased.

 no. of elements in the table
load factor   =    ————————————————-
 size of hash table

NOTE : best load factor would be 0.75 with respect to time and space complexity, according to java.

hashset in java

Here you can see hierarchy of hashset class. Hashset class extends abstractset class. AbstractSet class implements set interface.

And set interface extends collection interface. Collection interface extends iterable interface.

Also read – treemap in java

Hashset methods

boolean add ( E e )adds the specified element to this set if it is not already present
void clear ( )removes all of the elements from this set.
Object clone ( )returns a shallow copy of this HashSet instance: the elements themselves are not cloned.
boolean contains ( Object o )returns true if this set contains the specified element.
boolean isEmpty ( )method used to check whether the set is empty or not. Returns true if this set contains no elements and false for non-empty condition.
Iterator iterator()returns an iterator over the elements in this set.
boolean remove ( Object o )removes the specified element from this set if it is present.
int size ( )returns the number of elements in this set ( its cardinality ).

Constructors in hashset

  • HashSet h = new HashSet();

This constructor creates an empty hashset object with default initial capacity 16 and default fill ratio or load factor 0.75

  • HashSet h = new HashSet(int initialCapacity);

this constructor creates hashset object with specified initialCapacity with load factor 0.75. Nothing but customized initial capacity with default load factor.

  • HashSet h = new HashSet(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor);

Here we can customize load factor.

  • HashSet h = new HashSet(Collection C);

If you want Interconversion between Collection object then use this constructor.

Let’s see java program on hashset,

import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Iterator;

public class HashsetExample
public static void main(String[] args)
// HashSet declaration
HashSet<String> hs = new HashSet<String>();
// adding elements
// now adding duplicate values to HashSet

// display the HashSet
System.out.println("HashSet contains orange or not : " + hs.contains("orange"));

// removing item from HashSet using remove() method
System.out.println("HashSet after removing - mango : " + hs);

// iterate over hashset
System.out.println("Iterating over list : ");
Iterator<String> iterate = hs.iterator();


[orange, strawberry, mango]
HashSet contains orange or not : true
HashSet after removing – mango : [orange, strawberry]
Iterating over list :

Reference – Oracle help centre